Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide according to World Health Organization. Research is focusing on novel treatment options for cancer patients. Chemotherapy has been widely applied against various tumours, but it comes with severe side effects. Precision medicine, also known as personalised medicine, is a new way to fight cancer. It uses information about each individual’s tumours and the specific mechanisms that are driving the progress of the disease, in order to apply a targeted therapy for cancer cells. Vaccines have been used for the prevention of infectious diseases. Panagiotis Parsonidis and Ioannis Papasotiriou at Research Genetic Cancer Centre (RGCC) S.A, discuss the development of neoantigen-based vaccines, their mechanism of action, and the regulatory framework, the clinical landscape of personalised cancer vaccines and limitations in development.